The rerouting of flights could lessen the environmental impact of contrails

The ever increasing pollution, scientific advancements, industrial development and the lack of concern for the environment has made clear blue skies a part of our world history. Looking up and not finding a crisscross of contrails is literally impossible. What makes it even worse is that these contrails are increasing global warming significantly since they trap the infrared energy in the earth’s atmosphere. Researchers now believe that the impact left by the vapor trails of aircrafts can be significantly reduced by adding a small distance to the total length of the flight.

A group of researchers working at the University of Reading have conducted a series of studies to find solutions to the problems of contrails. They believe that a solution is now in sight and a simple action can actually reduce the devastating effects of both issues. The BBC reports that these researchers believe that the vapor trails of aircrafts can be significantly reduced by adding a small distance to the total length of the flight. This should also help to reduce the impact of global warming.

Vapor trails are formed when aircrafts fly through moist and cold air, which leads to the exhausts from the engines to condense. Some of these trails can stretch for as much as 100 miles as well. Moreover, these trails are known to stay around for a period of 24 hours before dissipating. The impact that these trails are having on global warming is far greater than the carbon emissions.

Researchers believe that the impacts can easily be limited by flying the aircraft at a lower altitude. However, if planes fly at a lower altitude, the contrails are limited at the expense of more flight time and a significant amount of extra fuel – which leads us to the all important question. Prevent global warming or prevent burning more fuel.

To answer the question posed by their study, the researchers at Reading also sought to calculate the answer to this paradox. The study found that if flights were rerouted in strategic ways, the increase in flight length was minor and the contrail reductions were huge. For example, the researchers believe that a flight between New York to London could avoid a major contrail by adding just 14 miles to its journey.

Dr. Emma Irvine, the lead author of the research, states that people might believe that huge distances might be required to avoid such contrails, but actually the addition of a small distance can help to avoid a huge contrail. The precise adjustments that are required for flights to avoid contrails depend on the weather conditions and the type of aircraft. But, Emma states that these issues are very easy to calculate and factor into the flight. She further states that the key things that one needs to know are the temperature and the moisture content in the air, and both sets of data are already available.

There might be numerous legislative measures that need to be made all over the world in order to curb the issue of contrails and reduce global warming, but it is time that governments begin to concentrate on the environment around them. Hopefully, this study shall trigger a set of responses that allow countries to make changes for the better.

How to Play Player’s Choice 21?

Player’s Choice 21 is a variant of Blackjack that was launched somewhere in the year 2013. It followed countless other variations of Blackjack to the casinos of Vegas and then on to international stardom. The game combines three card poker and the regular version of Blackjack to offer players with the best of both the worlds.

The main idea of the game is that the players are allowed to start off with three cards and then use them to create two starting cards for blackjack. One card, a card that can be chosen by the player, shall act as a common card in both hands. The game is usually played with 6 – 8 decks of standard game cards. Players must use their initial cards to play against a bonus pay table and then use them to form two different blackjack combinations and compete against the dealer. Insurance is offered to players if the dealer is showing an Ace.

The game begins when players make three separate wagers – one each for the two hands and a “Players Choice Bonus” bet that must be equal to or more than the bet placed for each hand. Moreover, the bets placed for each hand should be equal to each other. Once all bets have been placed, all players are dealt with 3 cards that are facing up. The dealer is given two cards – once card that is facing up and once card that is facing down. All three cards are used to determine the Player’s Choice Bonus bet and then used to play Blackjack. The Player’s Choice Bonus wager must always be settled before the Blackjack round begins. All players must arrange their cards into 2 separate hands. Both hands shall have one unique card each and one common card. Once the players have arranged their hands, the game gets converted into a standard game of Blackjack. The dealer always deals with the Hand 1 first and then proceeds to hand 2. Players should remember that changing hands are not allowed once they have been arranged.

The various payout ratios for the Player’s Choice Bonus are –
1. A ratio of 1:1 for a single Pair
2. A ratio of 3:2 for a Flush
3. A ratio of 2:1 for a Straight
4. A ratio of 10:1 for Trips
5. A ratio of 20:1 for a Straight Flush
6. A ratio of 60:1 for 3 of a Kind Suited
7. A ratio of 75:1 for AKQ Suited.

Once the normal blackjack game begins, players can choose to stand or ask for another hit for their hands. The idea still remains to get closest to 21 and beat the dealer. The dealer can choose to hit or stand with a soft 17. All natural blackjacks pay in the ratio of 3: 2 and players can also choose to use double bets and split bets on any two card hand. That being said, players can only split their cards 3 times and the hands can be split upto a maximum of 4 hands (including the 1st and 2nd Hand). Players can also choose to use the double bet after splitting. Finally, Aces can only be split once and all split aces get one card only. Another major change in the Player’s Choice 21 is that there are no surrenders.

The Right Seat at the Poker Table Does Matter

Your position at the table normally doesn’t matter much in most types of gambling, but in a game of poker it could end up being the difference between winning and losing. The right spot at the table can help intermediate players get that much needed edge and take their game up by a notch or two. So how do you really position yourself in order to ensure that you get the best seat in comparison to your opponents? Remember, seat selections are quite important. It is also an aspect of the game that most people are likely to end up ignoring.

There are no superstitions involved here. Choosing a seat is an important decision because it determines the gameplay and helps you take advantage of impulsive players or save yourself from tactically clever players. In other words, sitting next to players skilled players will not win you as much money as sitting next to impulsive players will.

Yes, there are some variations of poker where the seating doesn’t matter at all. For example, when it comes to rotating games, each player is given a chance to start the betting. Therefore, your seating order doesn’t matter as much since the playing order is constantly changing. However, when it comes to the Texas Hold’em and Poker tournaments, you can definitely take advantage of proper seat selections.

It always helps to have players who are easy to frighten and timid in their gameplay to your left and impulsive and aggressive players to your right. This allows you to give your game a proper direction and maximize the traits of your opponents to your advantage. Why? You would always want the aggressive players to bet before you. If they raise, you can make your decisions based on the bet amount and also have the option to fold without having to waste precious chips. Similarly, when you have timid players to your left, you would always want to act first and force them to fold the strongest hand as well.

Since the money flows in a clockwise direction around the table, it always helps to place those who are most likely to raise to your right. This helps to make playing the game a lot easier for you. Moreover, the seating wouldn’t matter as much in live casinos. You should also remember that highly skilled players are likely to move to tables that match their skill level. So make sure that you choose a table according to your own skill level.

For new players in poker, seating should never be a priority. Any player with any amount of skill is likely to beat you in the long run. So make the most of your experience in trying to get the hang of the game, understanding the various strategies, defining your own playing style and learning how to read other players. You can concentrate on seating arrangements later on in your careers.

Check out poker wizard Phil Galfond’s thoughts on position:

Six Keys to Winning At Blackjack

Blackjack is a game that is played and loved all over the world. People love to play blackjack while visiting a casino or while gambling online. It is also known to be one of the best games for those looking to actually win some money while gambling as it offers one of the most favorable odds to players. However, if you’re looking to win some money while playing blackjack, you need to understand the six keys to winning at blackjack.

Key # 1 – Understanding what to do with your hard hands

Here’s what you need to do when you get the following hard hands –
1. 5 – 8 : Hit the hand irrespective of the dealer’s hand.
2. 9: Double up for dealer hands between 2 – 6 and hit the hand for dealer hands between 7 – A.
3. 10 – 11: Double up for dealer hands from 2 – 10.
4. 12 – 16: Stand if the dealer gets less than 7 – A. Hit the hand if the dealer gets between 7 – A.
5. 17 – 21: Stand.

Key # 2 – Understanding what to do with your soft hands

Here’s what you need to do when you get the following soft hands –
1. 13 – 15: Hit the hand.
2. 16 – 18: Double up for dealer hand between 2 – 6, stand against a 7, hit the hand for another card for dealer hand between 8 – A.
3. 19 – 21: Stand.

Key # 3 – Learning when to split

Here’s what you need to do when you get the two cards of the same denomination (doubles) –
1. Always split your 8’s and your Aces.
2. Never split 2 – 10. Split 9’s except when the dealer gets Aces, 10s or 7s.

Key # 4 – The Do’s of Blackjack

Here are a few pointers for things you should do while playing Blackjack.
1. Have fun. Blackjack is ultimately about having fun.
2. Always memorize the rules before you play at a table.
3. Raise your bets when you’re winning.
4. Make sure that to stop playing if your bankroll becomes lower than a pre-set amount.

Key # 5 – The Dont’s of Blackjack

Here are a few pointers for things you should avoid while playing Blackjack.
1. Never take insurance when many people are playing the game and you don’t see any 10s on the board. Always take an insurance otherwise.
2. Don’t be rude to other players or to the dealer.
3. Don’t bet more money in order to chase your losses.
4. Don’t stall the game or take too much time to make a decision. Making other players wait longer than usual is considered to be bad manners.

Key # 6 – Inquire about player services before you start playing

Make sure that you inquire about player services before you start playing at a table. Many casinos are known to offer their patrons with free items in exchange for continued play at certain tables. These freebies could vary from free bets and match play coupons to complimentary meals and complimentary shows.

Is gambling all about luck or making an informed decision?

One of the most debated questions related to gambling happens to be whether it all sheer luck or rather an informed decision of the players that led them to victory. Till date a number of mixed responses have been received and hence no such conclusion could be arrived at. In reality, gambling involved a decent mix of both. However, some games in gambling are entirely based on 100% luck while others specifically based on calculations.

An important aspect for a newbie into gambling is to remember that he must try and gather as much information about the game as possible. He must initially try and observe the players and try to understand the basic set of rules involved. One the strategy is set in, he must start off with little money. Also there are plenty of resources only that can be helpful in understanding the basic ideology it based upon.

There are plenty of games based upon sheer luck and for miscellaneous reasons even happen to be extremely popular amongst the players. Reasons may be unknown but could probably be the excitement involved. Most of them without any sound reasoning are some of the most popular amongst players. Some of the best examples of such games would be slot machines, bingo etc. The result is beyond the control of the player. It is completely based upon luck as to how they fare on such machines and win. Despite players try a number of other alternatives like pressing the buttons differently or something else; it is still bound to reap the same result as it would want to.

Games based upon reason and skill too is popular amongst a different set of players. Also, such games involve comparatively lesser risk as compared to the ones based upon luck. Since these games are based upon calculations and probability it seems to be less dangerous. But then eventually, one must be ready for anything unexpected to happen anytime. It is important for players to not be over confident of their calculations and also set a limit of money they wouldn’t want to spend beyond. It is important to do so as it forms to be the primary reason why many incur huge losses.
Some excellent examples of skill based games would be poker and other card games. Even tough, in poker, one cannot really expect which card to follow, but yet there are plenty of other options a player can look for to predict the kind of cards his opponent owns. One of such indication could be the bets his opponents is placing would help him understand the cards he own. It is one such game which is extremely interesting and once a player gets the hang of the game, gradually he can easily master the skill too.

Gambling isn’t solely based upon either luck or informed decision. It is mix of both. There is absolutely no sure shot method of success in gambling.

Common Myths and Facts About Slot Machines

Almost each and every area of entertainment, whether it be entertainment, movies, sports or gambling, are subject to a number of myths and misconceptions that have been fuelled on over the years. Due to the financial aspects involved, the myths, taboos, misconceptions and superstitions in the field of gambling have grown in leaps and bounds. We asked around the streets of Vegas and took a peek at some of the most popular misconceptions existing among players in love with slot machines.

Myth # 1 – “If a slot machine has not paid in some time, it is due to pay”
Fact – Slot machines are never “due” for anything. Each and every round has the same probability of winning as the previous or the next one. Casinos do not set the amounts between spins and therefore the payout is completely random.

Myth # 2 – “Slots that have just paid out a major jackpot will not pay out for quite some time?”
Fact – This myth is as fake as the one above. As mentioned, the chances of winning are exactly the same for all hands.

Myth # 3 – “It is always better to pull on the handle rather than press the button”.
Fact – It doesn’t matter how the button is activated as it really has no effect on the overall outcome. In fact, both options do the exact same thing within the machine.

Myth # 4 – “Machines located closer to the doors tend to be ‘loose’ while those in the corners tend to be ‘tight.’”
Fact – The slot placement is completely random. However, casinos are known to club slots that offer a decent RTP to those that offer a below par RTP. Apart from this, there is no correlation between the placement of the slot and the payout.

Myth # 5 – If I leave one slot and play on another, someone else might get my hard earned jackpot!”
Fact – This is one of the most common assertions that are heard in casinos. Most people believe, that a slot machine needs to be fed with a certain number of coins before it pays out. However, what they fail to understand is that the payout is completely random and the number of coins fed into the machine has no influence on its payout.

Myth # 6 – “Casinos have flip switches that can make slot machines tighter if a lot of people win money at the same time”.
Fact – The flipswitch concept is one of the biggest misconceptions in the history of casinos. All online and physical casinos are licensed and regulated by independent bodies and having such flip switches is simply not possible.

Myth # 7 – “The payback percentages are not completely random as they can be determined by computer programmers”.
Fact – The results of any casino spin are completely random despite what people might choose to believe.

Myth – “Using player cards offers casinos the right to report players to the authorities such as the IRS”.
Fact – Anyone winning more than $1200 in the US is reported to the IRS. The amounts vary from country to country, but most casinos report players winning above a certain prescribed sum to the authorities irrespective of whether players use their player cards or not.

The advantages of progressive jackpots

Slots that offer progressive jackpots to their players are known to be among the most profitable slot machines for the online casino as well as the players. As most slot players are already aware, jackpot payouts in these games are usually offered to players who play with the maximum coins and bet levels allowed by the game. The concepts are quite similar to those used by progressive slots with the only difference being that the jackpot amount is not fixed. Whenever a player plays with the maximum bet amounts, a certain portion of the bet is kept aside and added to the jackpot total. Therefore, the progressive jackpot amount increases with every bet and there are cases when this amount can become quite huge.

Why are progressive jackpots so unique?

Progressive jackpots are well loved by all due to the simple fact that there are a considerable number of players playing the slot at any point of time. Thousands of people from all over the world contribute to the progressive jackpot and any one of these players can win the total amount anytime. Therefore, the pot can rapidly grow while you’re playing the progressive jackpot slot and this simply adds on to your excitement levels and gaming experience. Furthermore, most online casinos offer a range of games that offer progressive jackpots. This allows players to choose from a variety of games and still enjoy the progressive jackpot feature.

Playing a progressive jackpot game

If you wish to play a progressive jackpot game such as progressive slots or progressive blackjack, make sure that you complete the eligibility criteria to become eligible for the progressive jackpot. In terms of most blackjack games, the progressive jackpot is played as a side bet. On the other hand, you need to play with the maximum bet amounts in slot games to become eligible for progressive jackpots. Make sure to read the article about ID Research vs Application

Advantages offered by progressive jackpots

The biggest advantages offered by a progressive jackpot is the ever increasing jackpot value. The total jackpot amounts keep increasing till a player wins the prize. This can result in a substantial payoff for the winner and the higher the jackpot values, the greater the chance of winning them.

Another advantage offered by progressive jackpots is that users do not need to take a huge risk or play with extremely high cash values in order to win a progressive jackpot. This allows them to aim at winning the progressive jackpots without damaging their finances substantially.

All players are offered with the same opportunities to win the progressive jackpot. This works in favour of cautious players as they are offered a level playing field with those who love to bet huge sums of money. Once a user plays for the progressive jackpot, the costs involved are the same for everyone and the opportunities offered for players to win are also known to be the same.

Finally, most online casinos are known to offer progressive jackpot systems that can offer a payout at any moment. This allows players to hope of winning a progressive jackpot even when their luck seems to be down and out.

Why SportsBetting Beats Odds of Others

If you are a gambler then you are probably familiar with the expression “you win some, you lose some”. Luck plays a major role in gambling, and this is what makes it so exciting after all. The adrenaline rush, the huge potential payoffs some games promise players, as well as various prizes and jackpots, have made gambling a flourishing multi-billion industry.

Among all types of gambling, sports betting is hardly the most popular choice. Although you can choose to combine bets and parlays for higher gains, let’s face it: sports bets usually don’t offer payoffs high enough to get people itching to play. Moreover, sports betting is not seen as a game of skill. This is undoubtedly a wrong perception of this form of gambling, but helps explain why it doesn’t attract the numbers of players that poker or slots do.

However, sports betting is one of the safest form of gambling, and we’re going to give you three reasons why you should give it a go as well:

Predictable outcome

It is usually possible to predict sports results to some extent. There is always that chance that something unexpected happens, but you can choose to bet safe, on matches and games where the outcome is fairly predictable. Of course, as with any other game, in order to win you should have a sound knowledge of what is behind the numbers when it comes to sports betting. You should also make sure to check the recent history of wins and losses of the two players or teams, and the history of previous confrontations between the two.

You are not competing with other players

Unlike poker for instance, you are not competing with other players at your table or in the tournament. You play against the house. Sure, it’s said that the house always wins, but with sufficient information and some skill (which you pick up with time), you’ll notice that you will soon be winning more often than you are losing.

There are leads available

If you are interested in sports betting, you will find that there are many online resources for bettors. Some of these include betting tips for sportive events. While access to some of these resources can cost you a pretty penny, others are free. And it literally won’t cost you much to give them a shot.

While the amount you’ll get from sports betting will probably never compare to what you can get from a winning streak at the casino, with discipline and some guidance you can become a successful bettor earning a steady amount from his bets.

What to know about playing online poker

Many poker players, and most beginner poker players choose to play poker online. Doing so allows them to play from the comfort of their homes, whenever they feel like it. Furthermore, beginners can choose to play for play money instead of real money, thus ensuring they won’t lose too much while learning the essentials.
There are many websites where you can play poker online, and we suggest you identify the best one for your skill level and poker playing needs. A simple online search will provide the answers you need to make the best decision.

If you’re considering playing online poker, we hope this article will give you some useful basic information on poker websites, the software and game mechanics.

Poker Software
After deciding on which website you want to play poker, you need to download the poker software. The software gives you access to the most important areas of your account, including financial information, and provides an easy to use interface to access the list of game tables and tournament options.

Game choices
Since more and more people are being drawn to online poker, various types of games are becoming available. It’s usually enough for one website to post a game for the others to soon bring it online as well. Texas Hold’em is the most played type of poker these days, but you’ll also be able to play Omaha, 7 Stud, or less popular games like Razz or H.O.R.S.E.
You can also choose between either live tables or tournaments. Live table games can be either Fixed Limit games or No Limit games. While at live tables players play for real money, so each hand you win or lose real cash, in tournaments you pay an entry fee and then receive a stack of play money chips. The winning players receive cash prizes from a prize pool consisting of the total amount collected through entry fees, minus the house’s cut. The number of prizes depends on the number of players joining the game, and it’s usually between 3% and 10% of the total number of players.

Game mechanics
While in online poker games there is no dealer shuffling a deck of cards, cards are randomly dealt using a random number generator program. This procedure is even more effective than traditional shuffling, because there is no room for human error.
You are the only person who can see the cards you were dealt. The data is encrypted using a high security algorithm, and becomes available to the website staff only after the hand has ended.

Website profits
Poker sites make money by taking 3-5% of each pot played on the website, a commission called ‘rake’. It’s only taken from hands which reach the flop, so you won’t pay the rake if you’re the big blind and everyone else folds.
In the case of tournaments, most websites charge a 10% fee which is added to the buy-in, as ‘$10 + $1’. At times, however, the house might take its cut from the total prize pool. Either way, there is plenty left for the winners of the tournament.

ID Research Versus Application

I really owe a huge apology to those who have so ardently followed my blog for being away since September. Not for the shortage of ideas or things to blog, but due to a lot of changes that I had to go through at work, and personally grapple with managing time. Yes, there are still many things happening and I have slowly got back to the blogging circle, started reading stuff people in the community are sharing, trying to observe changes that have come about during this gap, etc. I do like to spend significant time researching matter that I want to write about, by reading other blogs where people have written about related topics. To me blogging is like a research, a constant quest for solutions for tomorrow and a means to express ideas that run through my head every now and then.

Fortunately, the ‘changes’ I’m talking about have helped me see things in a new light, to understand my domain from a broader perspective and understand how it fits into the bigger picture of things.

Things on my mind for a while now…
I have always wondered about the two aspects of instructional design: the theoretical side and the application side. I see how each time application tends to fall behind on going research. By the time you build a system to add in the most current trend, there is already something new. I believe this is the way it works in other domains as well, but the question that keeps running in my mind, is how does one reduce this gap? The smaller the gap, the more connected research will be with application. For example, if someone researches and writes about the ADDIE theory and I have to implement it in my organization, it is most common that I will not able to implement it as it is defined in books. What will likely happen, is that the way I work through it in my work place, gets driven by actual events that occur, functioning of other departments associated with the completion of my task and so on. I personally feel that research should not just run parallel to application. There has to be a means to constantly go back and forth between the two, take into account dependencies when writing a theory, and finally define more realistic theories and processes. It is important not to look at each domain in isolation and imagine it implemented in a running organization with real-time challenges.

This has been on my mind for really long now and I will continue to think on it. Please add your valuable thoughts as I would be glad to hear from you all.